Maharana Sangram Singh (12 April 1482 – 30 January 1528) commonly called Rana Sanga. He was a powerful Indian ruler of Mewar and head of a powerful Rajput confederacy in Rajputana during the 16th century.
Rana Sanga succeeded his father, Rana Raimal, as king of Mewar in 1508. He fought with the Afghan Lodhi dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, and later against the Mughals.
Rana Sanga was a grandson of Rana Kumbha. Rana Sanga became the ruler of Mewar after a battle for succession with his brothers.
As ruler of Mewar, he united the warring clans of Rajputana and formed a powerful confederacy, uniting the Rajputs after 300 years. The Rana extended the boundaries of his Kingdom through war and diplomacy with the goal of forming a Hindu padshahi (empire). First taking the advantage of internal strife in the Delhi Sultanate, he expanded into North East Rajasthan after defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the Battles of Khatoli and Dholpur.
Mewar attempted to vassalise Idar by reinstating Raimal onto the throne by defeating Bharmal who was supported by Gujarat. This led to a Mewar-Gujarat war and the Battles of Idar. He supposedly defeated the Gujarat Sultanate during Rana Sanga’s invasion of Gujarat. Sangram Singh also defeated the joint forces of Gujarat and Malwa Sultanates in the Siege of Mandsaur and the Battle of Gagron.
After the victory of Babur over the Lodhi Dynasty, Sangram Singh collected a coalition of Rajputs from the kingdoms of Rajasthan. They were joined by Muslim Rajputs from Mewat and Afghans under Mahmud Lodhi, the son of Sikandar Lodhi of Delhi. In the Battle of Khanwa, this alliance fought against Babur to expel him from India.
On 30 January 1528, Rana Sanga died in Chittoor, apparently poisoned by his own chiefs who held his plans of renewing the fight with Babur to be suicidal.
It is suggested that had not been the cannons of Babur, then Rana Sanga might have achieved a historic victory against Babur. The great historian Pradeep Barua notes that Babur’s cannons had put an end to the outdated trends in Indian warfare. Rana Sanga had a bloody battle with the Mughals. It was the battle of Khanwa.
The Battle of Khanwa was fought between forces led by the first Mughal Emperor Babur and the Rajput forces led by Rana Sanga of Mewar. The battle was held near the village of Khanwa, in Bharatpur District of Rajasthan, on March 17, 1527.
The Battle of Khanwa was fought between the Mughal Emperor Babur and the Rajput forces led by Rana Sanga of Mewar. The battle was fought at Khanwa, in Bharatpur District of Rajasthan, on March 17, 1527. The foundation stone laid at the battle of Panipat for the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India was strengthened by this battle.
The first battle of Panipat was fought between Babur’s forces and Ibrahim Lodi’s troops on 21 April 1526. Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate was defeated in the battle, which paved the way for beginning of the Mughal era in India. Babur became the ruler of Delhi and Agra.
On the other side, Rana Sanga had crushed Gujarat and conquered Malwa and was now close to Agra. He heard that Babur had defeated Ibrahim Lodi and was now master of the Delhi Sultanate. Rana Sanga thought Babur would also withdraw after seizing the treasures of the city but later realized that Babur was intended to stay and expand his rule in India.
Babur sent Humayun with military detachments for the conquest of Dholpur, Gwaliyar, and Bayana (The strong forts forming the outer boundaries of Agra). Later Rana Sanga marched to Agra. After hearing this Babur sent Humayun with military detachments for the conquest of Dholpur, Gwaliyar, and Bayana (The strong forts forming the outer boundaries of Agra).
The commanders of Dholpur and Gwaliyar surrendered their forts to Babur accepting his generous terms. But the Bayana commander, Nizam Khan negotiated with surrender. Babur’s first military detachment to Bayana was also defeated and scattered by Rana Sanga’s forces. However later Bayana surrendered to Babur.